Xiao Xu, Ph.D., is an associate professor in the Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences at Yale School of Medicine. As a health economist and health services researcher, her work has focused on identifying factors that influence quality and resource utilization in women’s health care. Her recent studies examined hospital and regional variation in intervention utilization, costs, and patient outcomes; comparative effectiveness and cost effectiveness of health interventions; and gender and socioeconomic differences in health and health care. Her research has been funded by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, National Institutes of Health, and various research foundations. Her work received Honorable Mention for the Aetna Susan B. Anthony Award for excellence in research on older women and public health (American Public Health Association, 2005), Frank J. McDevitt Excellence in Research Award (Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan Foundation, 2008, 2011), and Carol Weisman and Gary Chase Gender-Based Research Award (AcademyHealth, 2017).