The 2014 Listening Project Report identified several research and data gaps related to Medicare. Among these was a need for greater understanding of the internal workings of Medicare Advantage plans, especially their internal payment structures and the specific tools they use to coordinate care and seek efficiencies. AcademyHealth’s search for evidence in response to the stated need appears to validate policymakers concern about the lack of evidence on the topic. Other MA-related questions that continue to be of interest to policy makers include 1. To what extent do MA plans benefit from favorable selection? 2. How does MA fare vis-à-vis traditional Medicare in terms of the quality of care and relative efficiency or resource use and value to the taxpayers? 3. Can payment accuracy be improved in MA? and 4. Given that risk-adjusted MA payments are based on fee-for-service (FFS) expenditures in traditional Medicare, what is the extent of coding differences between MA and traditional FFS? This Evidence Roadmap identifies evidence relevant to those questions. It was produced with the support of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation.