The 2014 Listening Project Report identified several research and data gaps related to Medicare. Among these was a perceived need for greater understanding of beneficiary behavior – in particular, how beneficiaries make decisions regarding their insurance coverage as well as how they respond to financial and other incentives with respect to their health care choices. In response, AcademyHealth produced this Research Roadmap featuring a selection of currently available data and evidence on the topic. It was produced with support from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation.