The 2014 Listening Project Report identified several research and data gaps related to Medicare. In their Listening Project interviews, members of the Medicare policy community suggested a particular need for policy-relevant research focused on the growing number of costly “specialty drugs” – often biologics — to treat conditions that affect a relatively small number of people. Policymakers are interested in ways to maintain access to safe and effective drugs for patients while containing cost growth. Research on the potential use of biosimilars, generic forms of biologics, and the cost impact of specialty drugs on consumers exists, but biosimilars are a new concept in U.S. policy, therefore, more research will be forthcoming with time. In response to the stated need, AcademyHealth developed this Research Roadmap to identify existing evidence and data on the topic. It was produced with the support of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation.