While there is consensus that more reform is needed to improve the value we receive from our investment in health care in the U.S., questions remain around the optimal mechanisms to achieve this goal. For example, how can we promote greater affordability and stability in the individual insurance market? What does the evidence suggest about the effectiveness of benefit design strategies and consumer engagement in health care decision-making? How are safety net health systems responding to alternative payment models and coverage expansions? The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation’s (RWJF) Research in Transforming Health and Health Care Systems (RTHS) program, managed by AcademyHealth, funds rigorous, empirical studies that evaluate or predict the potential effects of policies or policy changes intended to transform health and health care systems.