Policymakers and payers are increasingly interested in the potential for consumers and purchasers to improve health outcomes and control costs through their own health care decision-making. Strategies that focus on the “demand-side” include: value-based insurance design, wellness programs, high-deductible insurance plans, price transparency, and shared decision-making. These strategies aim to improve value in health care by helping consumers and purchasers differentiate between high- and low-value services, by making consumers more cost-conscious shoppers for services and insurance coverage, and by raising consumers’ awareness about the consequences of health behaviors.